Through supplementing the California coast’s natural reef environments, California Ships to Reefs endeavors to increase the economic opportunities of all California coastal communities, and will provide increased economic benefit through sport fishing and scuba diving opportunities, and, once fully developed, become recreational attractions functioning in harmony with marine ecosystems.
"I think reefing ships is a fantastic win/win/win scenario for sport divers, sport fishermen and the environment. Natural wrecks break down into rubble piles over time and though they will continue to attract fish, the bigger the structure the bigger the attraction and the bigger the ecosystem it will hold and or attract."
-- Richie Kohler, Advisory Board, Ships to Reefs International                      
Quoted from California Diver Magazine
Information Sources


Environmental

National Guidance: Best Management Practices for Preparing Vessels Intended to Create Artificial Reefs, U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Published in the Federal Register, May, 2006 (Effective Date).
www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/habitat/artificialreefs/documents/0605finalreefguidance.pdf

Basel Action Network “Dishonorable Disposal”
ban.org/library/Dishonorable Disposal_BAN Report.pdf

CSTR Refutation of Basel Action Network’s Recent Report, “Dishonorable Disposal”
californiashipstoreefs.org/Resources/Documents/CSTR Responds to Basel Action Network.pdf

Public Health Assessment, Fish and Shellfish Evaluation, Isla De Vieques Bombing Range, Vieques, Puerto Rico.
Prepared by: Federal Facilities Assessment Branch, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, Agency for
Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, June 27, 2003.
www.atsdr.cdc.gov/HAC/pha/reports/isladevieques_06272003pr/index.html

Ecological Assessment of the HMCS Yukon Artificial Reef of San Diego, CA (USA), Ed Parnell, Ph.D., January 2005
californiashipstoreefs.org/Resources/Documents/Yukon Environmental Report.pdf

Biological Baseline Survey of the Ex-HMAS Brisbane Artificial Reef, Monika Schlacher-Hoenlinger, University of
the Sunshine Coast, et al, December 2006
californiashipstoreefs.org/Resources/Documents/Studies/biological-monitoring-ex-hmas-brisbane%5B1%5D.pdf

Fish Assemblages on Sunken Vessels and Natural Reefs in Southeast Florida, USA, P.T. Arena, et al, 2007
www.springerlink.com/content/p383u48710I626wm/

Progress report summarizing the reef fish sampling, PCB analysis results and visual monitoring associated with the
Oriskany Reef, a decommissioned former Navy aircraft carrier sunk in 2006 as an artificial reef in the Northeastern
Gulf of Mexico off Pensacola, FL, Jon W. Dodrill, et al, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, April 2011
californiashipstoreefs.org/Resources/Documents/Studies/Oriskany-Reef-PCB-Monitoring_2011.pdf

Case Study: The National Environment Policy Act and the Disposition of Ex-Oriskany; September 2012
dukespace.lib.duke.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/10161/5990/T.%20Mitchell_ORISKANY_NEPA_Duke_Capstone%20Paper_FINAL.pdf

Final Report of Five-Year Spiegel Grove Assessment, Joe Cavanaugh, Director of Field Operations, Reef
Environmental Education Foundation (REEF), 2008
www.reef.org/enews/articles/final-report-fiveyear-spiegel-grove-assessment

Fish assemblages on Estuarine Artificial Reefs: Rocky-Reef Mimics or Discrete Assemblages?, Heath Folpp, et al,
PLOS One, Volume 8, Issue 6, e63505, July 2013
www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0063505&representation=PDF

Economics

Disposal Options for Ships by Ron Hess, Denis Rushworth, Michael V. Hynes, and John Peters; RAND Corp.,
RAND Monograph Report, 2001. Prepared for the Department of Defense.
www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1377.html

Artificial Reefs, A Disposal Option for Navy and MARAD Ships by Michael V. Hynes, John E. Peters, Denis
Rushworth; RAND Corp., RAND Documented Briefing, DB-39 1-NAVY, March 2004. Prepared for the United
States Navy.
www.rand.org/pubs/documented_briefings/2005/DB391.pdf

Creating Underwater Value: The Economic Value of Artificial Reefs for Recreational Diving, Linwood H.
Pendleton, Ph.D., December 12, 2004.
www.californiashipstoreefs.org/Resources/Documents/Studies/Creating Underwater Value-Pendleton.pdf

Towards a Better Understanding of the Economic Value of Ships to Reefs Scuba Diving in Southern California,
Linwood H. Pendleton, January 2, 2005.
californiashipstoreefs.org/Resources/Documents/Yukon Economic Report.pdf

Demand for Diving on Large Ship Artificial Reefs, O. Ashton Morgan Appalachian State University, et al, April 2008
econ.appstate.edu/RePEc/pdf/wp0909.pdf

The Economic Benefits Associated with Florida’s Artificial Reefs, Chuck Adams, et. al., University of Florida,
IFAS Extension, August 2011
edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe649


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